经济学人丨迪士尼的“伪巴黎”丨2017.09.10丨总第984期

摘要: 巴黎迪斯尼乐园原名欧洲迪斯尼乐园,是美国之外的第二座迪斯尼乐园。

导读

巴黎迪斯尼乐园原名欧洲迪斯尼乐园,是美国之外的第二座迪斯尼乐园。位于法国巴黎以东32公里,面积达5000英亩,已于1992年4月12日正式启用。

迪士尼乐园以五大部分组成,正门的Main Street USA满是旧日美国牛仔时代的小镇风光,令人有进入时光隧道之感。Adventureland风靡世界的大轮船,以及大峡谷的峻峭山势,更添巴黎风情。和其它迪斯尼乐园一样,巴黎迪斯尼乐园也以西部小镇、大峡谷、海盗船等场景为主;不同的是:为了融入当地社会文化,巴黎迪斯尼乐园不管是城堡的设计、街道、建筑物的雕饰,乃至于树丛花圃的造型,都设计得精致优雅,跟其它的迪斯尼乐园很不一样,颇有欧洲古典宫廷花园的感觉。乐园旁边还有一座迪斯尼摄影棚乐园,两者共同构成巴黎迪斯尼休闲区。

We’ll always have Val d’Europe

我们将永远拥有瓦尔德欧洲

Disney has built a pseudo-Paris near Paris

迪士尼在巴黎附近建了一座“伪巴黎”

The world’s greatest simulacrum company finally outdoes itself

世界上最棒的影像公司最终超越了自己

Aug 3rd 2017 | VAL D’EUROPE

ONE of the newer attractions at Disneyland Paris is “Ratatouille: The Adventure”, a ride through Paris as seen by Rémy, the movie’s rodent gastronome hero. Located in a twee movie-set version of the city, complete with a fountain, café and overpriced bistro, it could easily pass for the real thing, were it not for the diminutive scale and cheerful waiters. (Disneyland is a realm of fantasy after all.)巴黎迪士尼的新景点之一“料理鼠王:大冒险”是一个以该电影主人公雷米的视角穿越巴黎的小旅行。这个游乐设施坐落在电影片场版的巴黎中,那里有喷泉,咖啡馆和高价的小酒馆,除了面积缩小,服务员活泼开朗,它就跟真的巴黎一样。(毕竟迪士尼乐园是一个幻想王国。)

  • Twee:adj.可爱的,花里胡哨的

  • Fountain:n.喷泉

  • Bistro:n.小酒馆

  • Diminutive:adj.小型的


Disney has experience building replicas of Paris. At the EPCOT theme park in Florida, the “French pavilion” recreates a Parisian market, wine bar and a mini-Eiffel Tower. But the company’s most ambitious faux Paris is not in a theme park at all. A few kilometres down the road from Disneyland is the commercial heart of Val d’Europe, a cluster of imitation belle époque housing blocks with mansard roofs surrounding a giant shopping centre. All of it is built to design guidelines lifted from Baron Haussmann, the architect of Paris’s mid-19th-century reconstruction.

迪士尼以前也建立过巴黎的复制品。位于佛罗里达州的艾波卡特主题公园,法国馆重现了巴黎人的超市、酒吧和迷你埃菲尔铁塔。但是迪士尼公司最宏伟的假巴黎根本不是一座主题公园。在距离迪士尼乐园不远的地方是欧洲谷的中心商业区,这是一群仿一战前欧洲“美好年代”的有双重屋顶的建筑群,中间是一家巨大的购物中心。这些都是根据巴黎19世纪中期巴黎重建的建筑师拜伦·豪斯曼的设计指南而建造的。

  • Replica:n.复制品

  • A cluster of:一群,一串

  • Imitation:n.模仿,仿制品


The development was part of the deal Disney made in 1987 to build its European theme park in Val d’Europe, a then empty part of Marne-la-Vallée, one of France’s “new towns” planned in the 1960s. Disney had learned the importance of controlling the land surrounding its parks from Anaheim, California, where a rash of cheap hotels and low-quality restaurants spread around the original Disneyland. In Florida, and then in France, Disney insisted on buying up huge chunks of land. It controls 2,230 hectares of Val d’Europe, or about two-thirds of the total area. About half of that has been developed into two theme parks (a third is in the works), a “nature village” resort set to open this summer, public services including a high school and a hospital, and some 12,000 new homes.

其开发是迪士尼在1987年做的交易中的一部分,在欧洲谷建立欧洲主题乐园。欧洲谷当时是Marne-la-Vallée——法国60年代规划的新镇——的一片空地。(读者试译)迪士尼已经从加利福尼亚阿纳海姆边案例学会控制乐园周边的土地,那里有一连串的便宜旅馆和低品质的餐馆环绕在初始的迪士尼周围。先是在佛罗里达州,然后是法国,迪士尼坚持买下大量土地。它拥有了2230公顷的欧洲谷土地,大约是那地区土地面积的三分之二。一半的面积已经被开发成两个主题公园(第三个仍在建造中),一个“田园乡村”度假村将在今年夏天开放,公共服务包括一所新高中和一家医院,还有约12,000新居所。

  • A rash of:一连串

  • Insist on:坚持


Val d’Europe is one of two full-fledged towns Disney built under Michael Eisner, the company’s boss from 1984 to 2005 and an urban-planning enthusiast. In Florida it was Celebration, an idealised community of picket fences and front porches that promised a return to 1950s America. Val d’Europe shares Celebration’s principle of “new urbanism”, which promotes mixed zoning, density and walkability. But the design decisions came from the French bureaucracy. “The last thing they wanted to see was a new idea,” says a former Disney executive involved in the negotiations.

欧洲谷是迪士尼在迈克尔·艾斯纳领导下建成的两大发展成熟的小镇之一,艾斯纳是1984至2005年之间的公司总裁,同时是城市规划的狂热爱好者。另一处是佛罗里达州的“庆典”小镇,一个有着尖栅栏和门廊,宛如回到1950年的美国的理想社区。欧洲谷和庆典秉承相同的理念“新都市主义”,意在提升混合分区制,密度以及可步行性。但是决定是否采纳设计取决于法国官僚。参与谈判的一位前迪斯尼经理说“他们最不愿见到的就是新想法。”

  • Full-fledged:adj.成熟的,正式的

  • Enthusiast:n.狂热者,热心家

  • Idealised:adj.理想的

  • Picket fences:n.栅栏

  • Front porches:n.前沿

  • Zoning:adj.分区制的

  • Walkability:n.可移动性

  • Executive:adj.执行人员,官员,管理


This was, in part, a reaction against suburbanisation, says Brian Shea, an architect who worked on Val d’Europe’s master plan. But it was also a rejection of the high postmodernism of Ricardo Bofill’s housing estates in nearby Noisy-le-Grand. Though spectacular to look at—they formed the backdrop to such alarming movies as “Brazil” and “The Hunger Games”—they failed as experiments in urban housing. Nobody, it turned out, actually wanted to live on the set of a retro-futuristic dystopia.

欧洲谷的一位参与总体规划的设计师Brian Shea称,从某种程度上来说这是对郊区化的一种反抗。(期待您的翻译,明天会有针对这句话的长难句解析哟~)它们构成了如《巴西》和《饥饿游戏》等惊人影片的背景画面,尽管看起来很壮观,但是作为城市住房的实验品它们是失败的。事实证明,没有人愿意住在这样复古未来主义的反乌托邦式住房中。

  • Suburbanisation:n.近郊化

  • Master plan:n.蓝图,总体规划

  • Noisy-le-Grand:大努西瓦

  • Spectacular:adj.壮丽

  • Backdrop:n.背景幕布

  • Retro-futuristic:未来复古主义

  • Dystopia:n.反乌托邦

Val d’Europe has been a commercial success. Under the terms of its agreement with the state, Disney retains the option to buy more land at 1987 prices—€1.69 ($2.00) per square metre—which it can then sell on at market price or develop. The region’s population grew from 5,000 in 1989 to 30,000 in 2016 (about a fifth of working-age adults are employed by Disney). That is expected to double by 2030. Arnaud de Belenet, the mayor of Bailly-Romainvilliers, a village south of the commercial centre, says taxes from Disney and the non-tourist economy have paid for schools and infrastructure. He hopes to attract more companies to the region. But not everyone is pleased. Hacène Belmessous, whose book “The New French Happiness, or The World According to Disney” is a study of Val d’Europe, criticises it as a privatised space run by a multinational corporation. It is, he says, “the death of the public city”.

欧洲谷是成功的商业案例。迪士尼通过与州政府的协议,保留了以1987年的价格购买更多土地的期权,那时候的地价是每平米1.69欧元(2美金)。迪士尼可以按照当前市价出售这些土地,也可以进行开发。当地人口从1989年的5000人增长到2016年的3万人(大约五分之一处在工作年龄的成年人受雇于迪士尼公司)。预期到2030年,人口还会翻一番。巴伊罗曼维列是商业中心南部的一个小镇,当地镇长Arnaud de Belenet称,来自迪士尼与非游客经济的税收收入被用于支付学校开支与基础建设。他希望吸引更多的公司来到当地。但是并非所有人都心满意足。Hacène Belmessous是书籍《The New French Happiness, or The World According to Disney》的作者,此书对欧洲谷进行了研究。Hacène Belmessous批评其为由跨国企业运作的私有化空间。他称之为“公共城市的消亡”。


翻译 ▍陌上,迟暮,Bibobibo,下罗小柜员

审核 ▍白夜叉

图文编辑 ▍leone

责任编辑 ▍毛毛

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But it was also a rejection of the high postmodernism of Ricardo Bofill’s housing estates in nearby Noisy-le-Grand.

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