The development was part of the deal Disney made in 1987 to build its European theme park in Val d’Europe, a then empty part of Marne-la-Vallée, one of France’s “new towns” planned in the 1960s. Disney had learned the importance of controlling the land surrounding its parks from Anaheim, California, where a rash of cheap hotels and low-quality restaurants spread around the original Disneyland. In Florida, and then in France, Disney insisted on buying up huge chunks of land. It controls 2,230 hectares of Val d’Europe, or about two-thirds of the total area. About half of that has been developed into two theme parks (a third is in the works), a “nature village” resort set to open this summer, public services including a high school and a hospital, and some 12,000 new homes.